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Encyclopedia of Global Warming, Vol 1 Abrupt Climate Change Energy Policy Act of 1992

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Encyclopedia of Energy, Volumes 1 - 6 Details This highly topical reference draws together all aspects of energy, covering a wealth of areas throughout the natural, social and engineering sciences. The Encyclopedia will provide easily accessible information about all aspects of energy, written by leading international authorities. Looks like you are currently in Finland but have requested a page in the United States site. Would you like to change to the United States site?

Request permission to reuse content from this site. Undetected location. According to a joint research agenda conducted through the US Department of Energy, the fossil energy ratios FER for cellulosic ethanol, corn ethanol, and gasoline are Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. Even dry ethanol has roughly one-third lower energy content per unit of volume compared to gasoline, so larger therefore heavier fuel tanks are required to travel the same distance, or more fuel stops are required.

Butanol can be produced from biomass as "biobutanol" as well as fossil fuels as "petrobutanol" ; but biobutanol and petrobutanol have the same chemical properties. Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine. Because its longer hydrocarbon chain causes it to be fairly non-polar, it is more similar to gasoline than it is to ethanol. Butanol has been demonstrated to work in vehicles designed for use with gasoline without modification, and is thus often claimed to provide a direct replacement for gasoline in a similar way to biodiesel in diesel engines.

Most methanol the simplest alcohol is produced from natural gas, a nonrenewable fossil fuel, and modern methanol also is produced in a catalytic industrial process directly from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. However, methanol also can be produced from biomass as biomethanol using very similar chemical processes.

Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for diesel-engine vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide , and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe.

Biogas, which is also known as biomethane, landfill gas, swamp gas, and digester gas, is a collection of gases largely methane and carbon dioxide produced by the anaerobic degradation of biomass non-fossil organic matter by various bacteria. Bioigas is produced in a variety of low-oxygen natural environments with degradable organic matter, including swamps, marshes, landfills, agricultural and other waste sewage sludge, manure, waste lagoons , aquatic sediments, wet soils, buried organic matter, as well as via enteric fermentation in some animal digestive tracts, notably in cattle Wilkie Biogas technology allows it to be recovered using sealed vessels and therefore available for heating, electrical generation, mechanical power, and so forth.

Biogas can be retrieved from garbage or mechanical biological treatment waste processing systems.

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The solid byproduct, digestate, can be used as a biofuel or a fertilizer. Like natural gas, biogas has a low volumetric energy density compared to liquid biofuels, but it can be purified to a natural gas equivalent and further compressed for use as a transportation fuel, substituting for natural gas. Natural gas also is compressed to CNG, in order to be used to power motor vehicles.

Methane is also suitable for use in fuel cell generators. Biogas is often made from wastes, but also is made from biomass energy feedstocks Wilkie Landfill gas cannot be distributed through utility natural gas pipelines unless it is cleaned up to less than 3 per cent CO 2 , and a few parts per million H 2 S, because these chemicals corrode the pipelines. Biogas is a renewable energy source, like solar and wind energy.

Furthermore, biogas can be produced from regionally available raw materials such as recycled waste and is environmentally friendly. More than half of the gas used in Sweden to power the natural gas vehicles is biogas Wilkie Algae biofuels.

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Algae fuel is a biofuel that is derived from algae. Algae are photosynthetic, eukaryotic, plant-like organisms that use chlorophyll in capturing light energy, but lack characteristic plant structures such as leaves, roots, flowers, vascular tissue, and seeds. The production of algae to harvest oil for biofuels has not yet been undertaken on a commercial scale. But algae potentially can be grown commercially in environments such as algae ponds at wastewater treatment plants and the oil extracted from the algae and processed into biofuels. The benefits of algal biofuel are that it can be produced industrially, thereby obviating the use of arable land and food crops such as soy, palm, and canola , and that it has a very high oil yield as compared to all other sources of biofuel.

Thus, algaculture, unlike food crop-based biofuels, does not entail a decrease in food production, since it requires neither farmland nor fresh water.

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Seaweeds, which are macroscopic, multicellular marine algae, may offer a particular useful source of biofuels, since they lack lignin and likewise do not require land, fresh water, or fertilizer. One complication is that since about one-third of the sugars in seaweed take the form of alginate and microbes have not been able to convert it into ethanol. However, in , scientists reported that they have genetically engineered a strain of Escherichia coli to break down and ferment alginate in seaweed which could allow greater production Stokstad Lignocellulose biofuels.

Lignocellulose is composed of cellulose , hemicellulose, and lignin and makes up the structural material in plants, including in wood, grasses, water plants, and other rigid plant structures. When corn, wheat, and other plant crops are processed, tons of the stalks, stems, and wood shavings are disposed of because these waste parts contain lignocellulose and are inedible and have been difficult to turn into biofuel. However, much research is being conducted in how to turn such waste items into biofuels.

Above, cellulosic ethanol was mentioned as one byproduct of converting cellulosic biomass. Other research is being conducted because lignocellulose offers an alternative to fossil fuels Eberly Jatropha biofuels. Several groups are conducting research on Jatropha curcas , a poisonous shrub-like tree that produces seeds considered by many to be a viable source of biofuels feedstock oil Divakara et al. Much of this research focuses on improving the overall per acre oil yield of Jatropha through advancements in genetics, soil science, and horticultural practices.

Biogasoline is gasoline produced from biomass such as algae. Like traditionally produced gasoline, it contains between 6 hexane and 12 dodecane carbon atoms per molecule and can be used in internal-combustion engines. Biogasoline is chemically different from biobutanol and bioethanol, as these are alcohols, not hydrocarbons. Vegetable oil. Straight unmodified edible vegetable oil is generally not used as fuel, but lower-quality oil can and has been used for this purpose.

Used vegetable oil is increasingly being processed into biodiesel, or more rarely cleaned of water and particulates and used as a fuel. Vegetable oil is an alternative fuel for diesel engines and for heating oil burners.

Alternative energy

For engines designed to burn diesel fuel, the viscosity of vegetable oil must be lowered to allow for proper atomization of the fuel, otherwise incomplete combustion and carbon build up will ultimately damage the engine. Fungi biofuels. A group at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow , in a paper, stated they had isolated large amounts of lipids from single-celled fungi and turned it into biofuels in an economically efficient manner. More research on this fungal species, Cunninghamella japonica , and others, is likely to appear in the near future Sergeeva et al.

The recent discovery of a variant of the fungus Gliocladium roseum points toward the production of so-called myco-diesel from cellulose. This organism was recently discovered in the rainforests of northern Patagonia , and has the unique capability of converting cellulose into medium-length hydrocarbons typically found in diesel fuel Strobel et al. Animal gut bacteria for production of biofuels. Microbial gastrointestinal flora in a variety of animals have shown potential for the production of biofuels.

Recent research has shown that TU, a strain of Clostridium bacteria found in Zebra feces, can convert nearly any form of cellulose into butanol fuel Hobgood Ray Microbes in panda waste are being investigated for their use in creating biofuels from bamboo and other plant materials Handwerk The generation of energy by the use of biomass waste can make a significant contribution to a national renewable energy. Most of this biomass waste is municipal solid waste burned as fuel to run power plants EIA Incineration, the combustion of organic material such as waste with energy recovery, is the most common WtE implementation.

Modern incineration plants are vastly different from old types, some of which neither recovered energy nor materials. Modern incinerators reduce the volume of the original waste by percent, depending upon composition and degree of recovery of materials such as metals from the ash for recycling. Among criticisms of the generation of energy via biomass waste are the emission of fine particulate matter. Incineration of waste in general also has the complications of emission of heavy metals, trace dioxin, and acid gas, and critics argue that incinerators destroy valuable resources and they may reduce incentives for recycling.

Wood has been used as a popular fuel for millennia. Today, this hard, fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants can be classified as an alternative energy to fossil fuels.

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Wood fuel may be available as firewood, charcoal , chips, sheets, pellets, and sawdust. Wood fuel can be used for cooking and heating, and occasionally for fueling steam engines and steam turbines that generate electricity. Wood may be used indoors in a furnace, stove, or fireplace, or outdoors in a furnace, campfire, or bonfire.

In many areas, wood is the most easily available form of fuel, requiring no tools in the case of picking up dead wood, or few tools, although as in any industry, specialized tools, such as skidders and hydraulic wood splitters, have been developed to mechanize production. Sawmill waste and construction industry by-products also include various forms of lumber tailings.

Wood remains the largest biomass energy source. In the United States, most of the electricity from wood biomass is produced at lumber and paper mills, which use their own wood waste to provide their own electricity and steam needs EIA Charcoal is a derivative of wood. Biomass briquettes are being developed in the developing world as an alternative to charcoal.

There are relatively few examples of large scale briquette production. One exception is in North Kivu, in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo , where forest clearance for charcoal production is considered to be the biggest threat to Mountain Gorilla habitat. The staff of Virunga National Park have successfully trained and equipped over people to produce biomass briquettes, thereby replacing charcoal produced illegally inside the national park, and creating significant employment for people living in extreme poverty in conflict affected areas Otti As with any fire , burning wood fuel creates numerous by-products, some of which may be useful heat and steam , and others that are undesirable, irritating, or dangerous.

Among the deleterious by-products are smoke, containing water vapor, carbon dioxide and other chemicals and aerosol particulates, including caustic alkali fly ash, which can be an irritating and potentially dangerous by-product of partially burnt wood fuel. A major component of wood smoke is fine particles that may account for a large portion of particulate air pollution in some regions.

2. Philosophical interpretations of \(E_o = mc^2\)

Tidal energy is the form of energy created by movement of tides. Tidal forces are periodic variations in gravitational attraction exerted by celestial bodies. These forces create corresponding motions or currents in the world's oceans. Due to the strong attraction to the oceans, a bulge in the water level is created, causing a temporary increase in sea level. When the sea level is raised, water from the middle of the ocean is forced to move toward the shorelines, creating a tide. In terms of alternative energy, tidal energy refers to the energy that is harnessed from the tides for practical purposes.

The term tidal power is used synonymously as the conversion of tidal energy into a useful form of energy, or more specifically as the generation of electricity from the tides.