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Hosseini Tafreshi, A. Gilmour, A.

Letters in Applied Microbiology The following articles were the most downloaded articles from Letters in Applied Microbiology during January and February Antifungal activity of thyme Thymus vulgaris L. Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial activity. Nostro, A. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum species reduces intestinal permeability in experimental biliary obstruction.

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White, J. Rapid extraction of bacterial genomic DNA with guanidium thiocyanate. Pitcher, D. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on phytopathogenic Xanthomonas campestris pathovars. Satish, S. Environmental Microbiology The following articles were the most downloaded articles from Environmental Microbiology during January and February Beyond the Venn diagram: the hunt for a core microbiome.

Shade, A. Bacterial species may exist, metagenomics reveal. Caro-Quintero, A. Omics for understanding microbial functional dynamics. Jansson, J. Targeted metagenomics: a high-resolution metagenomics approach for specific gene clusters in complex microbial communities. Suenaga, H. Proteomics of extremophiles. Burg, D. Environmental Microbiology Reports The following articles were the most downloaded articles from Environmental Microbiology Reports during January and February Maximize your impact for less! Did you know that Corporate Members get a discounted rate to maximize their impact by advertising on the back cover, inside back cover and inside front cover of Microbiologist?

Bakermans, C. Climate change: a catalyst for global expansion of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. Paerl, H. Metagenomic analysis of the coral holobiont during a natural bleaching event on the Great Barrier Reef. Littman, R. Quorum-sensing quenching by rhizobacterial volatiles. Chernin, L. Powering microbes with electricity: direct electron transfer from electrodes to microbes. Lovley, D. With a targeted circulation in excess of 2, copies, Microbiologist is an effective way to reach decision-makers in industry, academia and public services, both in the UK and worldwide.

The day began with the Denver Russell Memorial Lecture before two taster presentations for the afternoon sessions on Microbiological safety of imported foods and Microorganisms and climate change. He began by paying tribute to Professor Denver Russell, whose work has contributed a significant amount of knowledge to the field.

He went on to provide an historical look at biocides including mummification, fumigation using burning juniper branches against the plague, and the use of chlorine to prevent childbed fever by Semmelweis in the mids. JeanYves then went on to talk about the varying degrees of susceptibility of different organisms to biocide activity. The adaptation of microorganisms was described, through the formation of spores, protozoal encystation and the formation The repeated exposure of microorganisms to low concentrations of biocides decreases their susceptibility to biocide treatment: very low concentrations of biocides change the susceptibility profiles of pathogens — but does this matter?

Jean-Yves explained that in practice the increased use of biocides on surfaces and in products can promote antibiotic resistance.

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Sampling methods. In the HPA carried out sampling on 3, imported foodstuffs, examples of contaminants found were Salmonella spp. Result interpretation is also an important part of the work conducted by the HPA in monitoring imported food with both European and HPA guidelines being used for this analysis; the European guidelines do not cover all food types and thus the HPA have compiled a more comprehensive list including testing parameters. Next Andrew Nichols from the University of Plymouth discussed climate change and communicable diseases and what the risks are!

The main dramatic weather conditions that can have an impact on infectious diseases are: heatwaves, storms, floods, fires and droughts. The effects of these are observed in agriculture, fisheries, ecosystems, economies, health and well-being. The diseases resulting from these changes in climate can be brought about via water, vector or food, although the impact in the UK is low. Water can result in an increased risk of disease due to flooding and heavy rainfall when combined with increased temperature, which can lead to outbreaks of toxic algal blooms, and cholera.

Increasing ambient temperatures and flooding can also support vector species such as malaria.

Outbreaks in countries, such as Greece, that are not commonly associated with malarial disease have been observed in recent years. Increases in temperature can also lead to increases in diarrhoeal diseases, in particular, salmonellosis. Surveillance, early warning systems, policy responses and risk assessments should go some way to the control of infectious diseases caused by climate change. Katie Laird Following a break for lunch and a chance to visit the trade show, delegates split into two groups for the afternoon sessions.

SfAM meetings secretary, Andy Sails, chaired the afternoon session addressing the Microbiological safety of imported foods. Although HPA guidelines are used in addition to EC regulations for imported foods, exotic foods may not be adequately covered. Sue presented a case study of a local resident wishing to commercially produce a mudfish paste and a raw crab product. Despite samples passing tests for microbiological safety the production processes were deemed to be unsatisfactory, so the products were considered to be high-risk.

Oriental bean curds which are fermented using Bacillus cereus pose a dilemma as this organism may consequently be present in numbers which are classed as unsatisfactory. A further complication associated with B.

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Some of these are used for wrapping ready-to-eat foods and some are chewed rather than ingested. In both of these situations, however, the leaves have the potential to transmit pathogenic organisms to consumers. The final group of products described by Sue involved contamination with Salmonella species. Christine Little, HPA Colindale, then spoke about Salad days — foodborne outbreaks due to imported fruit and vegetables: hazards, vehicles and sources.

She explained that although the number of outbreaks associated with fruit and uncooked vegetables is smaller than those associated with meat products, the size of each outbreak can be substantially larger. The year-round demand for fresh fruit and vegetables in the UK has resulted in them being sourced from many different countries through highly complex supply chains. Christine used two specific UK outbreaks to illustrate some of the pertinent issues. The outbreak of Salmonella Bareilly was found to be linked to consumption of bean sprouts. By examining the UK bean sprout distribution network the problem was traced back via caterers to a wholesale producer.

The second example was the outbreak of Salmonella Senftenberg which arose from contamination of pre-packed fresh basil grown in Israel. This typified the situation where those affected do not recall the consumption of minor ingredients of a dish. Two prospective population-based studies of infectious intestinal disease conducted 15 years apart iid1 and iid2 were described.

Following an initial telephone survey, participants were followed up for a year. Those who developed gastrointestinal symptoms were divided into two groups: one group were simply observed whilst the other had their routine clinical practice altered, including having samples taken. The results indicated that the observed decrease in cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis is real.

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This decrease has been attributed to the success of industry-led control interventions. Sarah then concentrated on Salmonella outbreaks associated with eggs.